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Chemical sensors and in situ analytical measurements are the primary focus of the Arnold Research Group.  Innovative sensing technology is developed to follow the concentration of targeted chemicals directly in complex samples.  Examples range from noninvasive measurements of glucose in the human body to the quantification of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere.  Near infrared absorption spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis methods is under development for clinical measurements in different medical settings.  Time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is also under investigation as a quantitative tool to characterize solid pharmaceutical preparations and to understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of organic reactions within crystals.